Review of: Korea Vs Japan

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On 10.04.2020
Last modified:10.04.2020


Korea Vs Japan

Worin sich China, Japan und Korea unterscheiden. Chinesen, Japaner und Koreaner schätzen es nicht sehr, wenn sie miteinander. LUBLIN, POLAND - JUNE Korea players celebrate victory after the FIFA U World Cup Round of 16 match between Japan and Korea Republic at. Als Imjin-Krieg wird der siebenjährige Invasionskrieg ( (jap. Bunroku 1) bis (jap. In Japan wird das Ereignis Bunroku-Keichō-Krieg (文禄・慶長の役, Hideyoshi schickte noch im selben Jahr Gesandtschaften nach Korea mit der.

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Als Imjin-Krieg wird der siebenjährige Invasionskrieg ( (jap. Bunroku 1) bis (jap. In Japan wird das Ereignis Bunroku-Keichō-Krieg (文禄・慶長の役, Hideyoshi schickte noch im selben Jahr Gesandtschaften nach Korea mit der. Am Anfang des Jahrhunderts geriet Korea unter japanische Herrschaft. wurde Korea Nordkorea (Demokratische Volksrepublik Korea) wird von Japan nicht anerkannt, sondern Südkorea (Republik Korea) als Repräsentant für Koreanische Selbstverwaltung versus UN-Mandat; Koreanische Streitigkeiten​. Korea vs. Japan: Streit um UNESCO-Nominierung. Die Insel Hashima könnte bald UNESCO-Weltkulturerbe sein, doch das hat zu. LUBLIN, POLAND - JUNE Korea players celebrate victory after the FIFA U World Cup Round of 16 match between Japan and Korea Republic at. Wie ist Südkorea im Vergleich zu Japan? % % of GDPvs% of GDP; x mehr Bildungsausgaben? % of vs. Japan. vs. South Korea. Worin sich China, Japan und Korea unterscheiden. Chinesen, Japaner und Koreaner schätzen es nicht sehr, wenn sie miteinander. Hyundai und Kia ächzen unter Gewinneinbrüchen. Ein schwacher Inlandsmarkt und Streiks belasten. Vor allem aber macht eine stärkere.

Korea Vs Japan

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Korea Vs Japan If you’re interested in finding a job in Japan Video

How Do Koreans Feel About Japan? - ASIAN BOSS

The Chinese culture was also heavily influenced by what they considered barbarian cultures. You can distinguish the written language. If you read into the history, it was that way.

Look it up before you say anything. Japanese people are very peacefull ,polite and respectful. They are hardworking and always under stress to get into the right school, the right company.

See some videos about Koreans giving a wallet back to people on youtube. They are so respectful. Have you ever been to Korea?

If you want to judge them, judge them after visiting South Korea. Japanese are hell racist too. Not all Korean is racist.

When I went to Korea, people are very nice,loves sharing stuff. I would say Koreans are most kind,cleaned modernized people.

You say Japanese are racist, but it took me like 10 years of living in Japan to learn any negative slang word about Koreans, they are so deeply hidden away and never used.

Its going to be same. No Koreans call Japanese slang unless its little kid or something just like in Japan.

You have to compare apples to apples. China is very diverse, and Mandarin is relatively a new language that went through many changes from its dynastic changes.

China previously had hundreds of ethnic groups and languages, more diverse than North America. Japan as well, has had native culture that has a similar history to that of North America in which the natives were nearly wiped out.

The two are complete different groups that have no relation to each other. Literally comparing East Indians to Latinos who are both Brown.

The similarities that you see among China, Korea and Japan are no more than globalization of East Asia in its past time. Like how many nations in the world today have some Western influence through globalization.

In fact, my girlfriend is Japanese, I live in Japan as well. For me, is just about perception and what you want for your life. Many Japanese are offended by that in fact.

I love here, Japanese people are very polite and their mannerism is just amazing. But I met many Chinese as well, and they was always very polite with me.

Actually, the Japanese and Korean languages are completely unrelated to the Chinese languages. Grammatical structures and syntax are completely different.

Linguists generally consider Korean and Japanese as language isolates, not belonging to any language families. Some linguists have suggested Korean is related to Japanese, because of grammatical similarities, and others have suggested both Korean and Japanese as being possibly related to the Ural-Altaic language group.

But there are no links whatsoever to the Sino-Tibetan languages. Korea and Japan did borrow the Chinese writing system, although Koreans later invented their own alphabet and in recent years have used it preferentially over the Chinese characters.

Hey buddy. I agreed that the grammar and the way of speaking of Japanese is quite different Chinese. But do u know any Cantonese or Mandarin?

Of course, nowadays most of Chinese are speaking Mandarin but do u know Mandarin is only the official language in Qing dynasty. In most years of Chinese history they were speaking Cantonese!!!!

Chinese was originated from the north, the ancient Chinese culture and language were also from the north, the Confucianism, Terracotta Warriors, Yellow River and so on.

Those cultural symbols were all created by the Northern Han Chinese. Korean and Japanese are more like northern Chinese.

And Cantonese are definitely not mainstream culture and ethnicity in China. The average height of Mandarin people is cm: Cantonesecm The average IQ of Mandarin people is Cantonese: Gunagdong And if you can speak mandarin especially in Northern accent, you can hear a lot Japanese words and Korean words are sound similar to Mandarin.

What is your point? Go look up linguistic family trees. Korean and Japanese are language isolates. Cantonese is tonal and very unpleasant to listen to.

Thanks for your comments, John. No point found in your gibberish either. No, Korean is not tonal. Neither is Japanese or English. Chinese is tonal and so is Vietnamese and Thai.

I think they sound kind of low class because of their shrill and harsh sounds. It has nothing to do with my not understanding the language.

If you search the internet, you will find that many people share my sentiments. Lol, because people keep saying that, then it must be true, eh?

If you know korean, you would realise there are so many shared words and similar sounding words for the same item with Cantonese, however not so with Japanese.

No, sorry, there are no shared words and similar sounding words between Korean and Cantonese. Koreans also borrowed a lot of vocabulary from Japanese as well.

However, the Korean and Japanese languages are still not close enough to be considered in the same family. Yes grammatically, Japanese and Korean are similar, in words not at all.

Koreans borrow Chinese vocabulary like English adopted Latin, Greek, German, French to there vocabulary that is about it. Chinese is not the origin of Korean and Japanese.

Korean and Japanese are considered as different language group from Chinese. Korean and Japanese just got influenced by written language.

The way of speaking and grammar is totally different. You got that point wrong. Cantonese, Mandarin, Tibetan, Burmese, etc.

This is highly controversial and not widely accepted. I grew up speaking 3 Chinese dialects: Teochew, Cantonese, and Mandarin. When I started to learn some Japanese and Korean, it was interesting that there was so much vocabulary and even expressions that were the same exact sounds, in either one of the 3 Chinese dialects I know.

Also wondering if the experts who say that the Japanese or Korean languages are more similar to other language than to Chinese, actually speak Japanese, Korean, or Chinese dialects.

You wrong. The most Japanese culture came from Korea. Of course, most Korean was influenced by Chinese culture. You also lack concrete historical and cultural knowledge.

What the… How do Tang dynasty influenced to Japan in that time? So Japanese learned to Korean what Chinese culture. Tang court also sent people like Buddhist monks to propagate Buddhism.

Tang influence over Japan is exaggerated when most of cultural originated from ancient Korean kingdoms. It was Korean Kingdom called Baekje that influenced Japan the most from Buddhism to culture, even Japanese imperial family are associated with Baekje Kingdom.

Did you learn your history from distorted and ultra-nationalistic Korean sources? Although Tang and Silla had some wars in the beginning, their relationship was soon normalized as Silla realized it could use Tang help to legitimize itself.

It accepted Tang suzerainty and began mass import of Tang culture. Thousands of Korean students go to the Tang capital to study yearly and brought back Tang culture and practices.

And then these practices were imported to Japan. But Japan also sent many students to the Tang capital, so it was as if Korea was the exclusive in its role of transmitting Tang culture.

Japanese temples and shrines architecture and design company Kongo Gumi was founded baekje people. Tang, song dynasty also so many influence after.

Countries that have the closest genetic group, except Japan and the South Korea, the Japanese Aboriginal. You are both wrong, how freaking sad…….

Nationality refers to the country you hold citizenship in, has nothing to do with color,race,ethnicity or culture….

Race refers to your phenotype, genetics. Everything else are just branches of these. Mongoloid is not really a Race. But does not mean they branched from each other.

All humans branched off from a Homo Sapien Race. Similar looking people does not mean they are from the same branch.

Only the writing system was borrowed, and with it a sizable chunk of words. Other than that glaring irregularity, good article.

It jives well with my experience working with international students from all three countries at my university. Mannerisms were the biggest tell-tale.

We had fewer Taiwanese students, but they were usually like the Japanese students—very curious about America and English, but sometimes shy about asking questions.

Firstly,Chinese characters belong to ideograph system,This leads Chinese character conveying a meanings rather than pronunciation.

So I agreed that Chinese is not the origins of Japanese and Korean. Mandarin is actually Beijing dialect. On the other hand,Chinese character not only represents a language but the Chinese culture.

Thirdly,Mannerisms,Which I want most to analysis but hard to state. Because be in china, the relation or favor is more useful than the laws or rules so that if you always be polite ,people might think,talk,despise,marginalize etc.

Which perhaps is indigestible for you even if me,but we all know what was happening was a sickness of society and we are striving for justice and a better world.

Chinese is full of tolerance sympathy and diversity,we never discriminate any race or minority group. I am Chinese and this Tan Tan is full of bull.

Chinese discriminate all the time. Tibetans might disagree…. Even a big company ceo cannot talk in english. I am eager to know the reasons.

Also am from india. It would be like the typical American studying Spanish or French for years in high-school. You may lost and give up your language to English instead of developing it, but please let the other people keep and develop their own language up to the mark.

Japanese kings of Asian countries. Considering style and grace and most of all maturity. Many Asian countries look to them as looking to a big brother.

Race is a thing and there are differences between them. I would say Korea is the best. Aleesio I agree race is definitely a factor and there are difference between most.

Silly arguments with baseless theories. All three nationalities are Mongoloids. We all come from Africa and had one mitochondriacal mother.

Nobody came about without others existence. The truth is that without China both their cultures would not be in their present format.

They like to label mainland Chinese as loud. Well Chinese are Americans of Asia. They like to label the Chinese as loud. Japanese and Korean languages were definitely not origined from Chinese languages.

Indeed, Japanese language and Korean language, share a bigger similarity to each other as well as other northeast asian languages such as Manchurian a dying language in China Mongolian etc, and this group of languages has a different rout from Chinese languages.

China has 56 ethnic races, all with their own twangs, dialects or slangs. And each is as unintelligibly as to one another. Good Lord they have not decided to invent new writing systems like Koreans did to over-impose on their former Chinese characters.

Japanese are wise to borrow Chinese characters to widen their literary world , thus enriching their poetry, philosophy and art no end, unlike Koreans.

Incidentally many of these Chinese characters used in Japan today continue to retain their Chinese pronounciation. For them Chinese are mixed people of many races not pure as them.

The Korean alphabet was never meant to replace Chinese; it was invented to provide the common people with a means to communicate with the government to voice their grievances in a society dominated by Literati.

This in itself is far more admirable. The alphabet later became the primary means of writing due to nationalistic reasons like the Japanese attempt to eradicate the Korean language in the latter part of the Colonial Era and matters of efficiency in an increasingly technological era.

The alphabet allows for far more accurate approximations of foreign words unlike both Chinese and Japanese systems and provides its own poetic and literary tricks and nuances that a non-alphabetic language would not.

Hangeul is often touted as the most efficient alphabet in the world—Google it. Even the Kana systems have their inspiration in systems like Yidu that were in use on the Korean Peninsula centuries prior to the Japanese of Kana.

Any disputes with my post can be verified with very simple research—so please conduct that research before spewing any reckless, racist nonsense.

A portion of these borrowings come directly from Latin, or through one of the Romance languages, particularly Anglo-Norman and French, but some also from Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish; or from other languages such as Gothic, Frankish or Greek into Latin and then into English.

The influence of Latin in English, therefore, is primarily lexical in nature, being confined mainly to words derived from Latin roots. You are absolutley right in saying that just because a writing system was borrowed from a different language does not mean that the languages are related.

They are all within the Proto Indo European language family. Most of the manners and traditions went out of the window with the revolution — leaving the country very much cultureless and traditionless.

What left of the cultures and traditions of the Chinese can be found mainly overseas like in Taiwan, Singapore or even the American Chinese.

China Chinese are now an entirely different breed of Chinese from those Overseas. The name Chinese is actually referring to Khitan people, so Chinese today are using wrong name for themselves.

Now china is copying everything from korea, they way they dress, girls wearing make up, tv shows etc. Also the comments regarding the respective languages are not entirely true.

Korean and Japanese are both thought to be language isolates. Again, these are features not seen in Japanese or Korean, which is rather telling.

Japanese people wear jeans and t-shirts. Maybe not to the office, but jeans are not as unusual as you seem to think.

However by no means the Korean nor Japanese languages originated from Chinese. Instead, the huge original differences between them made the Koreans to create a different writing system that would better represent the sounds and phonetics of their own language.

Koreans were forced to learn Chinese, but the people didnt take to it, a king i forget his name designed a alphabet and language. Korean language has closer ties to Turkey via Mongols than Chinese.

No, that is the wrong answer. Chinese were forced to learn a new language during each of their dynastic change.

Koreans used the Chinese writing. But even the Chinese writing went through many changes throughout its lengthy history.

One can conclude Chinese writing that they use today is not very authentic as let say what it was years ago.

Koreans and Japanese on the other hand have had the same language for a very lengthy time. No dynastic affected their language.

This is because during the steppe peoples invasion into Northern China, their was a change and migration in Race.

Where ethnic Chinese peoples were pushed South while the Northern peoples were decimated. Very similar history to that of India.

How Northern India and Southern India is different. You are deadly wrong. Even though most Asian languages have many similar syntax and stuff, they still have their differences in some areas.

The origin of the languages are not the same. We used different stuff before the Silk Road. But after the silk road.

The Asian languages influenced each other and they adapt or update the syntax and the way of talking to make it easier to communicate.

However, all of the languages never became one. To know the detail of the differences takes a lot of studying and explanation. The sentence structure is very similar in the way it is shaped.

I would not say Chinese is similar to Japanese. Besides, the syllabic and vowel system of Korean are not similar to Japanese. I have no idea if you have ever learned Korean or Chinese, Korean characters are phonetic, like Latin alphabet.

On the other hand Japanese has syllabic alphabet, which is systematically quite similar to Arabic. Im Korean. I Know Chinise words only. For Korean.

Its all. My ex girlfriend is a linguist from Busan , she told me the Korean language has more ties to the Turkish language than Chinese.

We were both were expats in China when we met ,she picked up Chinese very quickly, I told her it was because she lived so close to China, she was quick to give me the history of the Korean language.

Savage Noise Lan? I still remember a bunch of korean sitting on the ground in the underground station and talking loudly to each other while Chinese were very quite in Shanghai.

Behave yourself online! Even when spoken at about the same level of loudness, most people would agree that Cantonese sounds rather unrefined.

I totally agree with you. Japanese just borrow Chinese characters. Although we had our own unique language just as the Japanese, it is really hard to keep the language that we are using now if we do not include the part that has its origin from mandarins.

If you have ever learned mandarin you will be shocked how many vocabularies not just for directing sth but even grammatical vocabularies too Koreans use is all from mandarin.

Of course its usage or pronunciation may have changed alot from the original, still its most basic meaning is kept. It is like Latin for English.

The two are totally different language but you can never say totally NO to an assertion that Latin has some roots of English.

Arabic has a phonetic alphabet, just like Latin. Consonants and vowels are represented by separate phonetic letters.

I have learned Arabic and I have majored philology at the university. Yes , Arabic is a phonetic language , Ancient Egyptian or Coptic extinct language is a syllabic language and I think Italian too is syllabic not sure though.

All spoken languages are by the same virtue phonetic. The phonotactic structures of some such as Japanese and Chinese do mean that you have a majority of what we call open syllables.

Syllables with no consonant after the vowel. I live in Australia and I remember how a bunch of Australian school girls were laughing during class.

I agree, that Taiwanese are rather calm, compared to chinese. Some people might regard such behaviour as rude, but for me it is mostly just a different culture… Germans might be seen als cold, hard-minded or boring for not behaving such colorful and passionate.

To reiterate what others have said, neither Korean or Japanese languages evolved from any Chinese dialect. Both are language isolates, but probably share a common ancestor somewhere along the way.

Living with a housemate from Hong Kong the part about Chinese people speaking very loud becomes very clear. This would suggest to me that the Cantonese which I believe is a Mandarin dialect which she speaks back home would involve a far more complicated and important pronunciation of the vowels whereas the syllables carry far less importance.

Chinese land people often spit with or without meaning. When you compare KungFu movies to Samurai movies, Chinese people seam to be more hectic and the Japanese people raised pauses in speaking and movement to an art form.

Just on a language note…. Korean is considered by most linguists to be a language isolate. Oh your English is great!

As a chinese, I admit the object fact that Chinese people are noisy and old-fashioned relatively. Material determines consciousness. Sometimes I feel ashamed but I believe Chinese people are trying to ged rid of these bad habits.

One day, Chinese economy will get much better and GDP Per Capita will not be forty years behind of Japan like today, and by that time you will find Chinese people are not so bad.

BTW, Chinese fashions are not so weird and language has nothing to do with the flaws appear today. There is a distinct cultural differences between the Chinese people from those 3 regions.

You need to visit Taiwan, and Mainland China up far north. The Japanese and Koreans language was heavily influenced by the Chinese language.

That would be a more correct statement instead of saying that the Japanese and Korean language originated from Chinese.

And the Chinese language was influenced by even more diverse groups. The origin of Chinese is unclear due to this reason.

You may want to add Singapore Chinese and the Chinese expats many several generations removed from the Mainland in many countries throughout Southeast Asia.

That, and like every other Chinese community in the other parts of Asia. This statement only holds true for people in HK and Taiwan.

Most Mainland Chinese consider the 3 groups as the same nationality and do not mind being generalised. This is true as far as grouping the Chinese, however I had to use the common terms used overseas Chinese, Japanese, Korean to make things clear for people who have no background in the subject.

Those would be some good facts for a more detailed article. Agreeing with Uno H. Yi … As far as I know, the root of the Japanese language is still unknown.

Such as kanji. Japanese, like many languages in Asia borrowed Chinese words as a matter of doing business over the centuries.

But it should not be confused with origins. Japanese, Korean and Ainu most likely came from a proto-Altaic language think Mongols and other tribes spreading as far as Turkey while Chinese is a Sino-Tibetan language.

Even within Chinese, it is amazing how different Mandarin and Cantonese common Hong Kong dialect are and as I understand it, are for the most part mutually unintelligible.

Yes, mostly mutually unintelligible. Taking Chinese characters in into the native language is common for Asian languages because it makes things faster to write or to say.

Han character became well-known after the reformation of the Han Dynasty and the Silk Road. China traded with all Asia and Han character came into the neighbor countries.

They were fascinated of how fast it is to write with Han character. You really need a lot of cultural and history lessons.

Do you even study Japanese? In Chinese, there are only classifier and the classified words. Romanized pinyin is created after the westerner came to learn Chinese.

Let me rephrase that. I would like to share some of my experiences. I have lived in Japan over 10 years, and Korea for 4.

In that time, I found Korean culture to be extremely obnoxious. Every Korean male believes he is the most important person on the planet, and acts accordingly.

It was a horrible experience to have lived in Japan for 8 years and then to have moved to Korea. Thankfully, I am now back in Japan.

Suffice it to say, Japan and Korea, while close geographically, are a universe apart where it comes to customs and culture.

Its different from case by case, but i know what you are talking about, especially if you lived in Japan for ta while and expected somethings similar about japan.

And yes. It is a completely different thing to live in Korea for 4 years. I would like to observe what you have observed once I go visit that part of the world.

Unfortunately with that sentence so early on, it threw me off… so it was quite hard for me to remain unbiased when I continued to read.

I was taught by my professor in Japanese also a native speaker that most of the language does actually originate from the Chinese language. Kanji goes without saying.

Part of the confusion is that there are many theories on the origins of Japanese, Korean and Ainu. The consensus points to an origin as part of the Altaic languages whereas Chinese falls into the Sino-Tibetan group.

While there are many borrowed words probably as a consequence of centuries of trade, there are many aspects of grammar that make Korean and Japanese very different from Chinese.

Katakana was derived from hiragana. Most katakana are similar to hiragana, but are more angular and use more straight lines.

Im not racists or whatever they call it but on my experience, i find Chinese people the most rude and have no good manners in public.

They dont even know how to say excuse me or im sorry and they are the most dishonest among the three.

They are the most loud people i know. Koreans or the other hand, are racists people. Japanese on the other hand are the kind people.

They smell good and very industrious. Heheh you must have lived in japan first lol. It is quite true that japan is the most polite out of the three, generally speaking.

And china is developing right now. They are going through what the other two countries already have been through. In the other you can see mannerism in the other way, closedness.

Japanese are quite shut. U can even see it by the language they use. They can put a lot of distance between people by using the polite terms, same with korean, but bit less.

Then there is chinese. There was poison and bitterness in your words and i believ these thoughts of urs will not not affect u , when u r meeting a new east asian.

Chinese and koreans hate japan, and japan probably hates china and not in favor of KOREA but we arent to hate individuals.

Some do, but most just accept the others as long as they do not cause conflicts. You are comparing these cultures against your own.

What may be rude to you, may not be rude to others. Similarly, what may be normal to you, may be rude to others. Being loud may be rude in yours, but polite in theirs.

Just like eating with your hands may be rude to them but normal to you. It seems you are biased without even knowing it.

What defines the general standard of what is polite and what is not? I tend to go with culture as determining the standard. To a Westerner, I may ask how your wife and children are doing, but to an Arab, it would be very rude you may generally ask about family, but not specifically about the women of the family.

You may also find people in Asia wearing surgical masks in public, not to protect themselves, but to keep from spreading their cold to everyone else.

Korean men may seem like assholes to some, but I was surprised to find how normal it was to see drunk Japanese businessmen urinating in public while I lived in Japan.

Also, to say that the Japanese are not as racist per se is a complete lack of understanding of the dynamics of the culture. Even when I lived in Yokosuka, the Mikasa Mall side of blue street was okay for non-Japanese to patronize, but cross the street and enter many of the bars or restaurants pachinko parlors were okay and it became clear that gaijin were not welcome.

It was even more prevalent in some districts of Tokyo. If your talking about cultures then you are right, each countries has its own standard culturally but i bet the things i mentioned as an examples are definitely a no no to anywhere in the world if you know what i mean.

Let us not complicate of what is wrong and right in terms of the cultural structure coz it varies from country to country.

Just look at this example, each country has its own laws, and there is this United Nations, which has standard laws in the international community that has to be followed by each member country.

I liked the fact that you mentioned that these were just your own opinions and not facts. Actually, Chinese Han Dynasty developed the Han character.

And with the Silk Road, China open trade with the neighbor country and Han character became well-known.

Most Asian countries replaces their words with Han like Japanese replace Hiragana with Kanji to make writing faster.

Saying Asian language came from Chinese is totally wrong. I would say that culturally and scientifically, in Asia, Chinese is to a great extent what Latin has been in Europe.

There are so many loan words, that have been internalized in the other languages. Even the number system side by side with native systems.

I think he was talking about the alphabet. Nice article, and its quite easy to see. Especially if observing tourists. A variety of positions are available this week on our top jobs in Japan list including English IT teachers, J-to-E translators, service industry staff, recruiters and more!

If you have the skills—apply now! On Nov 16, There is plenty of affordable rooms — and room! Why not relocate and work remotely? This week's top jobs in Japan include full stack developers, recruiters, service industry professionals and marketing specialists and others.

On Nov 9, How does fashion differ between Japanese, Korean and Chinese people? What are the main differences between the Japanese, Korean and Chinese languages?

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This forced worship was viewed as an act of cultural genocide by many Koreans, but for the colonists, it was seen as evidence that Koreans and Japanese were a single, unified people.

Though some families got around the Shinto edict by simply visiting the shrines and not praying there, others grudgingly adopted the new religious practices out of fear.

At first, the colonial government made it illegal for people to adopt Japanese-style names, ostensibly to prevent confusion in family registries.

But in , the government made changing names an official policy. At least 84 percent of all Koreans took on the names, since people who lacked Japanese names were not recognized by the colonial bureaucracy and were shut out of everything from mail delivery to ration cards.

Throughout the occupation, protest movements pushed for Korean independence. In , the March First Movement proclaimed Korean independence and more than 1, demonstrations broke out.

The protests were brutally suppressed by the Japanese, but not before the desire for independence swept through Korea. Koreans also protested in their own quiet ways.

Some refused to speak Japanese or change their names; others came up with names that reflected their family history or contained subtle resistance to the policy.

Korea was divided into two occupation zones that were intended to be temporary. However, a unified state was never given back to the newly independent Korean people.

After the Korean War, South Korea transformed into a liberal democracy and tried to purge itself of the remnants of Japanese rule. Today, disputes continue about how and whether to prosecute those who worked with the Japanese government during the occupation.

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Japanese officials used this concession to force the accession of the new Emperor Sunjong following abdication, which was never agreed to by Gojong.

Neither Gojong nor Sunjong was present at the 'accession' ceremony. Sunjong was to be the last ruler of the Joseon dynasty, founded in In May , the Minister of War of Japan , Terauchi Masatake , was given a mission to finalize Japanese control over Korea after the previous treaties the Japan—Korea Treaty of and the Japan—Korea Treaty of had made Korea a protectorate of Japan and had established Japanese hegemony over Korean domestic politics.

The treaty became effective the same day and was published one week later. The treaty stipulated:. Both the protectorate and the annexation treaties were declared already void in the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea.

This period is also known as Military Police Reign Era —19 in which Police had the authority to rule the entire country.

Japan was in control of the media, law as well as government by physical power and regulations. In March , Korean intellectuals and Japanese intellectuals met in the th anniversary of Japan—Korea Treaty of and they declared this annexation treaty null and void.

They announced the "Japanese empire pressured the outcry of the Korean Empire and people and forced by Japan—Korea Treaty of and full text of a treaty was false and text of the agreement was also false".

They also declared the "Process and formality of "Japan—Korea Treaty of " had huge deficiencies and therefore the treaty was null and void.

This meant the March 1st Movement was not an illegal movement. One of the Korean rebels of righteous armies were formed in the earlier s after the Japanese occupation.

Its ranks swelled after the Queen's murder by the Japanese troops and Koreans. Shin Dol-seok, an uneducated peasant commanded over 3, troops. Among the troops were former government soldiers, poor peasants, fishermen, tiger hunters, miners, merchants, and laborers.

The Army was led by 1st Battalion Commander Major Park Seung-hwan , who later committed suicide, occurred after the disbandment, former soldiers of Korea start a revolt against Japanese army at the Namdaemun Gate.

The disbanded army joined the Righteous Armies and together they solidified a foundation for the Righteous Armies battle.

In , the Righteous Army under the command of Yi In-yeong massed 10, troops to liberate Seoul and defeat the Japanese. The Righteous Army was no match for two infantry divisions of 20, Japanese soldiers backed by warships moored near Incheon.

The Righteous Army retreated from Seoul and the war went on for two more years. Over 17, Righteous Army soldiers were killed and more than 37, were wounded in combat.

Most of the resistance armies were hunted down and unable to defeat the Japanese army head-on, the Righteous Army split into small bands of partisans to carry on the War of Liberation in China, Siberia and the Baekdu Mountains in Korea.

The Japanese troops first quashed the Peasant Army and then disbanded the remained of the government army. Many of the surviving Korean guerrilla and anti-Japanese government troops fled to Manchuria and Primorsky Krai to carry on their fight.

From around the time of the First Sino-Japanese War of —, Japanese merchants started settling in towns and cities in Korea seeking economic opportunity.

By the number of Japanese settlers in Korea had reached over ,, comprising the largest single overseas-Japanese community in the world at the time.

The Japanese leadership , convinced that their own country was overcrowded — especially in rural areas — encouraged farmers to emigrate.

Many Japanese settlers showed interest in acquiring agricultural land in Korea even before Japanese land-ownership was officially legalized in Governor-General Terauchi Masatake facilitated settlement through land reform , which initially proved popular with most of the Korean population.

The Korean land-ownership system featured absentee landlords, only partial owner-tenants and cultivators with traditional but no legal proof of ownership.

Terauchi's new Land Survey Bureau conducted cadastral surveys that established ownership on the basis of written proof deeds, titles, and similar documents.

The system denied ownership to those who could not provide such written documentation; these turned out to be mostly high-class and impartial owners who had only traditional verbal cultivator-rights.

Japanese landlords included both individuals and corporations such as the Oriental Development Company. Because of these developments, Japanese landownership soared, as did the amount of land taken over by private Japanese companies.

During that shortage, Japan looked to Korea for increased rice cultivation; as Korean peasants started producing more for Japan, however, the amount they took to eat dropped precipitously, causing much resentment among them.

This ratio increased steadily; as of the years , , and , the ratio of Japanese land ownership increased from The level of tenancy was similar to that of farmers in Japan itself; however, in Korea, the landowners were mostly Japanese, while the tenants were all Koreans.

As often occurred in Japan itself, tenants had to pay over half their crop as rent, forcing many to send wives and daughters into factories or prostitution so they could pay taxes.

By the s the growth of the urban economy and the exodus of farmers to the cities had gradually weakened the hold of the landlords. In , the Japanese government established the Korean History Compilation Committee , and it was administered by the Governor-General of Korea and engaged in collecting Korean historical materials and compiling Korean history.

The Japanese government conducted excavations of archeological sites and preserved artifacts found there. The National Palace Museum of Korea , originally built as the "Korean Imperial Museum" in to preserve the treasures in the Gyeongbokgung , was retained under the Japanese administration but renamed "Museum of the Yi Dynasty" in The Governor-General of Korea instituted a law in in order to preserve Korea's most important historical artifacts.

The system established by this law, retained as the present-day National Treasures of South Korea and National Treasures of North Korea , was intended to counter the deleterious effects of the speed of economic development for Korean cultural heritage on Korean historical artifacts, including those not yet unearthed, because the same happened in Japan after the Meiji Restoration where many antiquities were destroyed for economic development the first law to protect cultural properties in Japan was made on May 23, , the Edict for the Preservation of Antiquities and Old Items, but this and other laws to protect national heritages in Japan could not be automatically applied to Korea due to the Japanese law Article 30 which required an imperial ordinance to apply Japanese laws in Korea.

In , shortly after the annexation of Korea by Japan, ownership of land at the palace was transferred to the Japanese Governor-General of Korea.

Following the exhibition, the Japanese leveled whatever still remained and built their administrative headquarters, the Government-General Building —26 , on the site.

Restoration of Gyeongbokgung has been undertaken since The Government-General Building was removed in and Heungnyemun and Gwanghwamun —10 were reconstructed in their original locations and forms.

Reconstructions of the Inner Court and Crown Prince's residence have also been completed. Due to a waterway construction permit, in the small town of Wanpaoshan in Manchria near Changchun , "violent clashes" broke out between the local Chinese and Korean immigrants on 2 July The Chosun Ilbo, a major Korean newspaper, misreported that many Koreans had died in the clashes, sparking a Chinese exclusion movement in urban areas of the Korean Peninsula.

Approximately Chinese people were killed, wounded, and a considerable number of properties were destroyed by Korean residents.

Attempts were made to introduce the modern household registration system. This brought about the abolishment of the Korean caste system.

The surname could be of their own choosing, including their native clan name, but in practice many Koreans received a Japanese surname. There is controversy over whether or not the adoption of a Japanese surname was effectively mandatory, or merely strongly encouraged.

Korean migration had increased after World War I and accelerated after ; in , there were , Koreans living in the Japanese archipelago as internal migrants.

The combination of immigrants and forced laborers during World War II brought the total to over 2 million by the end of the war, according to estimates by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers.

In , some 1,, ethnic Koreans were repatriated to Korea, with , choosing to remain in Japan, [49] where they now form the Zainichi Korean community.

A survey by the Korean Youth Association showed that conscripted laborers account for 13 percent of first-generation Zainichi Koreans. From , labor shortages as a result of conscription of Japanese males for the military efforts of World War II led to organized official recruitment of Koreans to work in mainland Japan, initially through civilian agents, and later directly, often involving elements of coercion.

As the labor shortage increased, by , the Japanese authorities extended the provisions of the National Mobilization Law to include the conscription of Korean workers for factories and mines on the Korean Peninsula, Manchukuo , and the involuntary relocation of workers to Japan itself as needed.

Of the 5,, Koreans conscripted, about , were taken to mainland Japan including Karafuto Prefecture , present-day Sakhalin , now part of Russia for civilian labor.

Those who were brought to Japan were often forced to work under appalling and dangerous conditions.

This is clear from the 60, Korean laborers that died in Japan out of the near , that were brought there in the years to line a.

Most Korean atomic-bomb victims in Japan had been drafted for work at military industrial factories in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Japan did not draft ethnic Koreans into its military until when the tide of World War II turned against it. Until , enlistment in the Imperial Japanese Army by ethnic Koreans was voluntary, and highly competitive.

Korea produced seven generals and numerous field grade officers Colonels, Lieutenant-Colonels and Majors during 35 years of colonial governance by Japan, despite institutionalized discrimination.

The other six were graduates of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy. Other Japanese Army officers of South Korean origin moved onto successful careers in the post-occupation period.

Officer cadets had been joining the Japanese Army since before the annexation by attending the Imperial Japanese Army Academy.

Enlisted Soldier recruitment began as early as , when the Japanese Kwantung Army in Manchuria began accepting pro-Japanese Korean volunteers into the army of Manchukuo, and formed the Gando Special Force.

Koreans in this unit specialized in counter-insurgency operations against communist guerillas in the region of Jiandao.

The size of the unit grew considerably at an annual rate of men, and included such notable Koreans as General Paik Sun-yup , who served in the Korean War.

Historian Philip Jowett noted that during the Japanese occupation of Manchuria, the Gando Special Force "earned a reputation for brutality and was reported to have laid waste to large areas which came under its rule.

Starting in , Japan started the conscription of Koreans into the armed forces. All Korean males were drafted to either join the Imperial Japanese Army, as of April , or work in the military industrial sector, as of September Before , 18, Koreans passed the examination for induction into the army.

Koreans provided workers to mines and construction sites around Japan. The number of conscripted Koreans reached its peak in in preparation for war.

Most notably was in the Battle of Tarawa , which was considered during that time to be one of the bloodiest battles in U. A fifth of the Japanese garrison during this battle consisted of Korean laborers who were trained in combat roles.

Like their Japanese counterparts, many of them were killed. The Japanese, however, did not always believe they could rely on Korean laborers to fight alongside them.

In Prisoners of the Japanese , author Gaven Daws wrote, "[O]n Tinian there were five thousand Korean laborers and so as not to have hostiles at their back when the Americans invaded, the Japanese killed them.

After the war, Koreans were convicted of Class B and C Japanese war crimes , 23 of whom were sentenced to death compared to Japanese who were sentenced to death , including Korean prison guards who were particularly notorious for their brutality during the war.

The figure is relatively high considering that ethnic Koreans made up a small percentage of the Japanese military. Judge Bert Röling , who represented the Netherlands at the International Military Tribunal for the Far East , noted that "many of the commanders and guards in POW camps were Koreans — the Japanese apparently did not trust them as soldiers — and it is said that they were sometimes far more cruel than the Japanese.

Jacobs wrote that during the Bataan Death March , "the Korean guards were the most abusive. The Japs didn't trust them in battle, so used them as service troops; the Koreans were anxious to get blood on their bayonets; and then they thought they were veterans.

Korean guards were sent to the remote jungles of Burma , where Lt. William A. Bill Henderson wrote from his own experience that some of the guards overseeing the construction of the Burma Railway "were moronic and at times almost bestial in their treatment of prisoners.

This applied particularly to Korean private soldiers, conscripted only for guard and sentry duties in many parts of the Japanese empire.

Regrettably, they were appointed as guards for the prisoners throughout the camps of Burma and Siam. During World War II , many ethnic Korean girls and women were forced by the Japanese military to become prostitutes under the disguise of being hired for a job such as a seamstress, and were forced to provide sexual service for Japanese soldiers by agencies or their families against their wishes.

According to an interrogation report by U. Army in , comfort women were in good physical health and highly paid prostitutes but this report was taken from questionable sources.

They were able to have periodic checkup once a week and receive treatment in case of spreading disease to the Japanese soldiers and not for their own health.

An Byeong-jik , a Professor Emeritus at Seoul National University denied coercive mobilization of these Koreans by the Japanese military but this was also information taken from a Japanese diary which also had false information, showing the daily diary written by a Korean businessman.

Asian Women's Fund claimed that during the World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army recruited anywhere from tens of thousands [86] to hundreds of thousands [87] of women from occupied territories to be used as sex slaves, euphemistically referred to as comfort women.

Yoshimi Yoshiaki advocated that possibly hundreds of thousands of girls and women, mainly from China and the Korean Peninsula but also Southeast Asian countries occupied by the Imperial Japanese Army, as well as Australia and the Netherlands , were forced to serve as comfort women.

According to testimonies, young women were abducted from their homes in countries under Imperial Japanese rule. In many cases, women were lured with promises of work in factories or restaurants.

In some cases propaganda advocated equity and the sponsorship of women in higher education. Other enticements were false advertising for nursing jobs at outposts or Japanese army bases; once recruited, they were incarcerated in comfort stations both inside their nations and abroad.

From the early nineties onward, former Korean comfort women have continued to protest against the Japanese government for apparent historical negationism of crimes committed by the Imperial Japanese Army , and have sought compensation for their sufferings during the war.

The subsequent Moon Jae-in administration withdrew from the agreement. Similar differences in perspective and interpretation on the responsibility of Japan for war crimes committed during World War II remain a thorny issue between South Korea and Japan today.

Korean nationalist historiography , centered on minjok , an ethnically or racially defined Korean nation , emerged in the early twentieth century among Korean intellectuals who wanted to foster national consciousness to achieve Korean independence from Japanese domination.

Its first proponent was journalist and independence activist Shin Chaeho — In his polemical New Reading of History Doksa Sillon , which was published in three years after Korea became a Japanese protectorate , Shin proclaimed that Korean history was the history of the Korean minjok , a distinct race descended from the god Dangun that had once controlled not only the Korean peninsula but also large parts of Manchuria.

Shin and other Korean intellectuals like Park Eun-sik — and Choe Nam-seon — continued to develop these themes in the s and s.

They rejected two prior ways of representing the past: the Neo-Confucian historiography of Joseon Korea 's scholar-bureaucrats , which they blamed for perpetuating a servile worldview centered around China , and Japanese colonial historiography, which portrayed Korea as historically dependent and culturally backward.

The work of these prewar nationalist historians has shaped postwar historiography in both North and South Korea. Despite ideological differences between the two regimes, the dominant historiography in both countries since the s has continued to reflect nationalist themes, and this common historical outlook is the basis for talks about Korean unification.

Protestant Christian missionary efforts in Asia were quite successful in Korea. American Presbyterians and Methodists arrived in the s and were well received.

They served as medical and educational missionaries, establishing schools and hospitals in numerous cities. In the years when Korea was under Japanese control, some Koreans adopted Christianity as an expression of nationalism in opposition to the Japan's efforts to promote the Japanese language and the Shinto religion.

By the numbers were , and ,, respectively. Presbyterian missionaries were especially successful. Harmonizing with traditional practices became an issue.

The Protestants developed a substitute for Confucian ancestral rites by merging Confucian-based and Christian death and funerary rituals.

Following the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki , and the impending overrun of the Korean Peninsula by Soviet forces, Japan surrendered to the Allied forces on 15 August , ending 35 years of Japanese occupation.

American forces under General John R. Hodge arrived at the southern part of the Korean Peninsula on 8 September , while the Soviet Army and some Korean Communists had stationed themselves in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

Colonel Dean Rusk proposed to Chischakov, the Soviet military administrator of northern Korea, that Korea should be split at the 38th parallel. This proposal was made at an emergency meeting to determine postwar spheres of influence , which led to the division of Korea.

After the liberation of Korea from Japanese rule, the "Name Restoration Order" was issued on 23 October by the United States Army Military Government in Korea south of the 38th parallel , enabling Koreans to restore their names if they wished.

Many Koreans in Japan chose to retain their Japanese names, either to avoid discrimination, or later, to meet the requirements for naturalization as Japanese citizens.

Upon Emperor Gojong's death, anti-Japanese rallies took place nationwide, most notably the March 1st Movement of A declaration of independence was read in Seoul.

It is estimated that 2 million people took part in these rallies. The Japanese violently suppressed the protests: According to Korean records, 46, were arrested, 7, killed and 15, wounded; according to Japanese figures, 8, were arrested, killed and 1, wounded.

After suppression of the uprising, some aspects of Japanese rule considered most objectionable to Koreans were removed.

The military police were replaced by a civilian force, and freedom of the press was permitted to a limited extent. The modern South Korean government considers this Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea the de jure representation of the Korean people throughout the period of Japanese rule.

The Japanese occupation of Korea after annexation was largely uncontested militarily by the smaller, poorly armed, and poorly trained Korean army.

Many rebels, former soldiers, and other volunteers left the Korean Peninsula for Manchuria and Primorsky Krai in Russia.

Koreans in Manchuria formed resistance groups and guerrilla fighters known as Dongnipgun Independence Army , which traveled across the Korean-Chinese border, using guerrilla warfare tactics against Japanese forces.

The Japanese invasion of Manchuria in and subsequent Pacification of Manchukuo deprived many of these groups of their bases of operation and supplies.

Many were forced to either flee to China, or to join the Red Army -backed forces in eastern Russia.

One of the guerrilla groups was led by the future leader of communist North Korea, Kim Il-sung , in Japanese-controlled Manchuria. Kim Il-Sung's time as a guerrilla leader was formative upon his political ideology once he came to power.

Within Korea itself, anti-Japanese rallies continued on occasion. Many witnesses, including Catholic priests, reported that Japanese authorities dealt with insurgency severely.

When villagers were suspected of hiding rebels, entire village populations are said to have been herded into public buildings especially churches and massacred when the buildings were set on fire.

Kim Gu organized many of the exiled Korean resistance groups, forming the " Korean Liberation Army ". Economic output in terms of agriculture, fishery, forestry and industry increased by tenfold from to as illustrated on the chart to the right.

Randall S. Jones wrote that "economic development during the colonial period can be said to have laid the foundation for future growth in several respects.

In short, South Korea grew on the shoulders of the colonial achievement, rather than emerging out of the ashes left by the Korean War, as is sometimes asserted.

A study found that the gradual removal of trade barriers almost fully completed by after Japan's annexation of Korea "increased population growth rates more in the regions close to the former border between Japan and Korea than in the other regions.

Furthermore, after integration, the regions close to Korea that specialized in the fabric industry, whose products were the primary goods exported from Japan to Korea, experienced more population growth than other regions close to Korea did.

There were some modernization efforts by the late 19th century prior to annexation. Seoul became the first city in East Asia to have electricity, trolley cars, water, telephone, and telegraph systems all at the same time, [11] but Korea remained a largely backward agricultural economy around the start of the 20th century.

Japan also began to build large-scale industries in Korea in the s as part of the empire-wide program of economic self-sufficiency and war preparation.

This export trade had little impact, positive or negative, on the welfare of Japanese consumer. According to scholar Donald S.

Macdonald , "for centuries most Koreans lived as subsistence farmers of rice and other grains and satisfied most of their basic needs through their own labor or through barter.

The manufactures of traditional Korea — principally cloth, cooking and eating utensils, furniture, jewelry, and paper — were produced by artisans in a few population centers.

During the early period of Japanese rule, the Japanese government attempted to completely integrate the Korean economy with Japan, and thus introduced many modern economic and social institutions and invested heavily in infrastructure, including schools, railroads and utilities.

Most of these physical facilities remained in Korea after the Liberation. The Japanese government played an even more active role in developing Korea than it had played in developing the Japanese economy in the late nineteenth century.

Many programs drafted in Korea in the s and s originated in policies drafted in Japan during the Meiji period — The Japanese government helped to mobilize resources for development and provided entrepreneurial leadership for these new enterprises.

Colonial economic growth was initiated through powerful government efforts to expand the economic infrastructure, to increase investment in human capital through health and education and to raise productivity.

However, under Japanese rule, many Korean resources were only used for Japan. Another scholar, Song Byung-nak , states that the economic condition of average Koreans deteriorated during the period despite the economic growth.

Most Koreans at the time could access only a primary school education under restriction by the Japanese, and this prevented the growth of an indigenous entrepreneurial class.

A statistic shows that among the total capital recorded by factories, about 94 percent was Japanese-owned. While Koreans owned about 61 percent of small-scale firms that had 5 to 49 employees, about 92 percent of large-scale enterprises with more than employees were Japanese-owned.

Virtually all industries were owned either by Japan-based corporations or by Japanese corporations in Korea. As of , indigenous capital constituted only 1.

Korean entrepreneurs were charged interest rates 25 percent higher than their Japanese counterparts, so it was difficult for large Korean enterprises to emerge.

More and more farmland was taken over by the Japanese, and an increasing proportion of Korean farmers either became sharecroppers or migrated to Japan or Manchuria as laborers.

As greater quantities of Korean rice were exported to Japan, per capita consumption of rice among the Koreans declined; between and , per capita consumption of rice declined to half the level consumed between and Although the government imported coarse grains from Manchuria to augment the Korean food supply, per capita consumption of food grains in was 35 percent below that of to The Japanese government created a system of colonial mercantilism , requiring construction of significant transportation infrastructure on the Korean Peninsula for the purpose of extracting and exploiting resources such as raw materials timber , foodstuff mostly rice and fish , and mineral resources coal and iron ore.

The Japanese developed port facilities and an extensive railway system which included a main trunk railway from the southern port city of Pusan through the capital of Seoul and north to the Chinese border.

This infrastructure was intended not only to facilitate a colonial mercantilist economy, but was also viewed as a strategic necessity for the Japanese military to control Korea and to move large numbers of troops and materials to the Chinese border at short notice.

From the late s and into the s, particularly during the tenure of Japanese Governor-General Kazushige Ugaki , concentrated efforts were made to build up the industrial base in Korea.

This was especially true in the areas of heavy industry , such as chemical plants and steel mills, and munitions production.

The Japanese military felt it would be beneficial to have production closer to the source of raw materials and closer to potential front lines for a future war with China.

He also insists that Koreans' knowledge about the era under Japanese rule is mostly made up by later educators. According to Alleyne Ireland , a British author, he referred to condition of Korea under Japanese rule.

As of , he described on his book "The New Korea", "looking forward from , one thing was clear where many things were obscure, namely that Japan, having decided to make Korea part of her Empire, would deem the permanence of her occupation to be a major element of her national policy, to be held intact, at whatever cost, against internal revolt or foreign intrigue.

However, the Korean nationalists attribute to them a sinister significance. In , the Japanese government passed the Newspaper Law which effectively prevented the publication of local papers.

For the first decade of colonial rule, therefore, there were no Korean-owned newspapers whatsoever, although books were steadily printed and there were several dozen Korean-owned magazines.

Even with these relaxed rules, however, the government still seized newspapers without warning: there are over a thousand recorded seizures between and Revocation of publishing rights was relatively rare, and only three magazines had their rights revoked over the entire colonial period.

In , as the Pacific War increased in intensity, Japan shut down all Korean language newspapers again.

Japanese religious groups such as Protestant Christians willingly supported the Japanese authorities in their effort to assimilate Koreans through education.

During colonialism period, Japan established an equal educational system in Korea, but it strictly limited the rate of coed education.

After the Korean Educational Ordinance was published in , this situation has changed slightly. Besides, the Korean modern educational institutions were excluded from the colonial system.

The public curriculum for most of the period was taught by Korean educators under a hybrid system focused on assimilating Koreans into the Japanese empire while emphasizing Korean cultural education.

This focused on the history of the Japanese Empire as well as inculcating reverence for the Imperial House of Japan and instruction in the Imperial Rescript on Education.

Integration of Korean students in Japanese language schools and Japanese students in Korean language schools was discouraged but steadily increased over time.

While official policy promoted equality between ethnic Koreans and ethnic Japanese, in practice this was rarely the case. One point of view is that, although the Japanese education system in Korea was detrimental towards the colony's cultural identity, its introduction of public education as universal was a step in the right direction to improve Korea's human capital.

Towards the end of Japanese rule, Korea saw elementary school attendance at 38 percent. Children of elite families were able to advance to higher education, while others were able to attend technical schools, allowing for "the emergence of a small but important class of well-educated white collar and technical workers Another point of view is that it was only after the end of Japanese rule with World War II that Korea saw true, democratic rise in public education as evidenced by the rise of adult literacy rate from 22 percent in to Though free public education was made available for elementary schools during Japanese rule, Korea as a country did not experience secondary-school enrollment rates comparable to those of Japan prior to the end of World War II.

In the initial phase of Japanese rule, students were taught in Korean in public schools established by ethnic Korean officials who worked for the colonial government.

While prior to this schools in Korea had used mostly Hanja , during this time Korean came to be written in a mixed Hanja—Korean script influenced by the Japanese writing system , where most lexical roots were written in Hanja and grammatical forms in Korean script.

In , government efforts were strengthened to promote Korean media and literature throughout Korea and also in Japan. The Japanese government also created incentives to educate ethnic Japanese students in the Korean language.

In , as the assimilation policy began to ramp up, the first Hangul Day 9 October was celebrated to commemorate the Korean alphabet. The Japanese administrative policy shifted more aggressively towards cultural assimilation in Naisen ittai with a new government report advising reform to strengthen the war effort.

This left less room for Korean language studies and by all Korean language courses had been phased out.

Teaching and speaking of Korean was prohibited. The Japanese rule of Korea also resulted in the relocation of tens of thousands of cultural artifacts to Japan.

The issue over where these articles should be located began during the U. According to the South Korean government, there are 75, cultural artifacts that were taken from Korea.

Japan has 34,, the United States has 17,, [] and France had several hundred, which were seized in the French campaign against Korea and loaned back to Korea in without an apology.

Japan sent anthropologists to Korea who took photos of the traditional state of Korean villages, serving as evidence that Korea was "backwards" and needed to be modernized.

As Japan established the puppet state of Manchukuo , Korea became more vital to the internal communications and defense of the Japanese empire against the Soviet Union.

Japan decided in the s to make the Koreans become more loyal to the Emperor by requiring Korean participation in the State Shinto devotions, and by weakening the influences of both Christianity and traditional religion.

The primary building of Gyeongbokgung Palace was demolished and the Japanese General Government Building was built in its exact location.

The Japanese colonial authorities destroyed 85 percent of all the buildings in Gyeongbokgung. Protestant missionary efforts in Asia were nowhere more successful than in Korea.

In the days Korea was under Japanese control, Christianity became in part an expression of nationalism in opposition to Japan's efforts to promote the Japanese language and the Shinto religion.

The Catholics tolerated Shinto rites. Missionaries, however, were alarmed at the rise in communist activity during the s.

Communist literature was effectively banned in Korea at this time, but it was sometimes smuggled into the country disguised as Christian literature, often addressed to missionaries to further avoid suspicion.

Communist concepts, such as class struggle, and its partner nationalist movement were resonating well with some of the peasants and lower-class citizens of colonial-era Korea; this was worrying to some missionaries because of communism's atheist components.

This protest renewed Japanese governmental interest in censorship of communist ideas and language. Many Koreans became victims of Japanese brutalities during the colonial period.

Korean villagers hiding resistance fighters were dealt with harshly, often with summary execution , rape , forced labour , and looting.

There were several reports of atrocities. In one instance, Japanese police in the village of Teigan, Suigen District, Keiki Prefecture now Jeam-ri, Hwaseong , Gyeongggi Province herded everyone into a church, locked it, and burned it to the ground.

They also shot through the burning windows of the church to ensure that no one made it out alive. Many participants of the 1 March Movement were subjected to torture and execution.

Many community leaders urged the adoption of Japanese names to make it easy for their children to succeed in society and overcome discrimination.

A study conducted by the United States Library of Congress states that "the Korean culture was quashed, and Koreans were required to speak Japanese and take Japanese names".

Those Koreans who retained their Korean names were not allowed to enroll at school, were refused service at government offices, and were excluded from the lists for food rations and other supplies.

Faced with such compulsion, many Koreans ended up complying with the Name Change Order. Such a radical policy was deemed to be symbolically significant in the war effort, binding the fate of the colony with that of the empire.

Historical estimates range from 10, to ,, including an unknown number of Koreans. However, , is considered to be a conservative number by modern historians, and up to , comfort women are estimated to be taken.

Comfort women were often recruited from rural locales with the promise of factory employment; business records, often from Korean subcontractees of Japanese companies, showed them falsely classified as nurses or secretaries.

In , South Korea started an investigation of Japanese collaborators. Part of the investigation was completed in and a list of names of individuals who profited from exploitation of fellow Koreans were posted.

The occupation government also worked to assimilate Koreans with the help of language, religion and education. Shinto shrines originally intended for Japanese families became places of forced worship.

This forced worship was viewed as an act of cultural genocide by many Koreans, but for the colonists, it was seen as evidence that Koreans and Japanese were a single, unified people.

Though some families got around the Shinto edict by simply visiting the shrines and not praying there, others grudgingly adopted the new religious practices out of fear.

At first, the colonial government made it illegal for people to adopt Japanese-style names, ostensibly to prevent confusion in family registries. But in , the government made changing names an official policy.

At least 84 percent of all Koreans took on the names, since people who lacked Japanese names were not recognized by the colonial bureaucracy and were shut out of everything from mail delivery to ration cards.

Throughout the occupation, protest movements pushed for Korean independence. In , the March First Movement proclaimed Korean independence and more than 1, demonstrations broke out.

The protests were brutally suppressed by the Japanese, but not before the desire for independence swept through Korea.

Koreans also protested in their own quiet ways. Some refused to speak Japanese or change their names; others came up with names that reflected their family history or contained subtle resistance to the policy.

Korea was divided into two occupation zones that were intended to be temporary. However, a unified state was never given back to the newly independent Korean people.

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